[Solved]SessionNotCreatedError: Unexpected error launching Internet Explorer

In this tutorial we will discuss about Fixing the issues that arises during execution of Selenium WebDriver tests against the browser Type Internet Explorer. Before Running Tests, make sure the following settings are updated for the Internet Explorer.

Browser Zoom Level

Access File Menu->View->zoom should be set to 100%.

Protected Mode Settings

Access File Menu->Tools-> Internet Options->Security.
Make sure the Protected Mode is enabled or disabled for all the Security Zones as listed below:

  • Internet Zone
  • Local intranet
  • Trusted Sites
  • Restricted Sites
Enabled or Disable Protected Mode

Enabled or Disable Protected Mode

Executable File

Add the IEDriverServer.exe to the eclipse project by downloading from the link https://www.seleniumhq.org/download/

Untrusted SSL Certificate

To Handle the SSL Certificates on IE Browsers use the following code snippet to Handle SSL Certificates. This logic clicks on the link Continue to this website(recommended)


Selenium WebDriver Program:


Therefore, setting the zoom to 100% and enabling or disabling the protected mode for all the security zones resolves the SessionNotCreatedError.

Software Testing Interview Questions

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Software Testing Interview Questions
In this article, we see best interview questions of Software Testing. Let’s get started.

What is Test Harness?
A test harness is the collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions which involves monitoring the output with expected output.

What is Integration Testing?
Integration Testing is the process of testing the interface between the two software units. Integration testing is done by three ways. Big Bang Approach, Top Down Approach, Bottom-Up Approach

What is Adhoc Testing?
Ad-hoc testing is quite opposite to the formal testing. It is an informal testing type. In Adhoc testing, testers randomly test the application without following any documents and test design techniques. This testing is primarily performed if the knowledge of testers in the application under test is very high. Testers randomly test the application without any test cases or any business requirement document.
What are the principles of Software Testing?
1. Testing shows presence of defects
2. Exhaustive testing is impossible
3. Early testing
4. Defect clustering
5. Pesticide Paradox
6. Testing is context depending
7. Absence of error fallacy

What is Defect clustering?
Defect clustering in software testing means that a small module or functionality contains most of the bugs or it has the most operational failures.

What is Pesticide Paradox?
Pesticide Paradox in software testing is the process of repeating the same test cases, again and again, eventually, the same test cases will no longer find new bugs. So to overcome this Pesticide Paradox, it is necessary to review the test cases regularly and add or update them to find more defects.

What is Bug Leakage?
A bug which is actually missed by the testing team while testing and the build was released to the Production. If now that bug (which was missed by the testing team) was found by the end user or customer then we call it as Bug Leakage.

What is Showstopper Defect?
A showstopper defect is a defect which won’t allow a user to move further in the application. It’s almost like a crash.
Assume that login button is not working. Even though you have a valid username and valid password, you could not move further because the login button is not functioning.

What is State Transition?
Using state transition testing, we pick test cases from an application where we need to test different system transitions. We can apply this when an application gives a different output for the same input, depending on what has happened in the earlier state.

What is Defect Age?
Defect age can be defined as the time interval between date of defect detection and date of defect closure.
Defect Age = Date of defect closure – Date of defect detection
Assume, a tester found a bug and reported it on 1 Jan 2016 and it was successfully fixed on 5 Jan 2016. So the defect age is 5 days.

If you have any queries, please comment below.

Author bio: Rajkumar SM is a founder of SoftwareTestingMaterial.com. He is a certified Software Test Engineer. He has an extensive experience in the field of Software Testing.

[solved]java.lang.IllegalStateException – Driver not executable on MAC

In this tutorial we will discuss how to solve the java.lang.IllegalStateException on MAC during the execution of tests on Chrome Browser.
Before getting into point, we will discuss about File Permissions on Unix platform. Each and every file in Unix has following attributes:

  • Owner: Owner of the file
  • Group: User belongs to a particular Group
  • Other: Other users

To view permissions of any file on unix use the following command:
total-qa$ ls -l chromedriver
-rw-r--r-- 1 25399 25399 chromedriver

Changing Permissions

We can modify the permissions of a file by providing following Access:

  • Read
  • Write
  • Execute

To provide all the read,write and execute permissions for all the attributes Group,Owner and Others for a file in Unix use the following command in the terminal as mentioned below:

total-qa$ chmod 777 chromedriver
Owner :4 (read) + 2 (write) + 1 (execute) = 7 rwx
Group :4 (read) + 2 (write) + 1 (execute) = 7 rwx
Others :4 (read) + 2 (write) + 1 (execute) = 7 rwx

We can even update the permissions of the File in Eclipse directly as well.

1. Right Click on the project and select the Properties.

chromedriver properties on MAC

chromedriver properties on MAC

2. Select all the Read,Write and Execute permissions for Owner,Group and Others.
chmod:777 - Read,Write,Execute permissions for Owner,Group and Other Attributes

chmod:777 – Read,Write,Execute permissions for Owner,Group and Other Attributes


Modifying the permissions of the file executes the chromedriver and launches the Chrome Browser successfully.

java-semicolon after for loop,while loop,if statement

In this tutorial we will discuss about the problem by adding the semicolon after for-loop,while-loop and if-statement. This concept is very important to know from Selenium WebDriver perspective as well. We mainly use for-loop for iterating the List of WebElements.
Also, one important key-note here is adding semicolon does not throw any compilation error in Eclipse.
So, it would be difficult to understand the reason why the code is not working as expected.
Else we can depend on the static code checking tools such as following which helps in identifying those issues.


java-semicolon after for loop,while loop,if statement

Adding Semicolon for if-Statement:

int i = 1;
if(i==2);//condition is false
System.out.println("if-statement");//Empty Statement will be executed




if(i==2); Adding semi-colon for if-statement the line is ended.
The code in the curly braces executes irrespective of the condition is true or false.

Adding Semicolon for for-loop:

for(int i=0;i>10;i++);//condition is false
System.out.println("in for-loop");//Empty Statement will be executed


in for-loop


for(int i=0;i>10;i++); Adding semi-colon for-loop the line is ended.
The code in the curly braces executes irrespective of the condition is true or false.

Adding Semicolon for while-loop:

int j = 1;
System.out.println("in while-loop");//Empty statement will be executed.


in while-loop


while(j>10); Adding semi-colon for while-loop ends the line.
The code in the curly braces executes irrespective of the condition is true or false.

Therefore adding the semicolon executes the empty statements without any errors.

Highlighting the Empty Statements with Errors in Eclipse

Enable Empty Statement

Enable Empty Statement

Enabling Empty Statements shows the following Errors during compilation in Eclipse:
Empty Statement Errors

Empty Statement Errors

Automating SVG and Interactive Charts in Selenium-JavascriptExecutor

In this tutorial we will discuss about automating the Interactive Charts and SVG [Scalable Vector Graphics] in Selenium.

To automate these Interactive Charts, Selenium Locators such as Xpath and Css-Selector are not helpful. We should depend on an Interface called JavascriptExecutor to identify the SVG and read the values available in these charts.

Javascript Commands:

Reading Attributes of SVG graph[Scalable Vector Graphics]

Scalable Vector Graphics - SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics – SVG

Reading Data from the Chart
Interactive Chart-Line Chart

Interactive Chart-Line Chart

Executing the Javascript Commands in Selenium WebDriver


M 84.5 73 L 84.5 359
Basic line | Highcharts


JavaScript HTML DOM Document
Interactive Charts


Therefore, using Javascript Commands we can automate the SVG and Interactive Charts in Selenium.

DevOps Tutorial-3 Triggering CI Build with Github Push Notifications

In this tutorial we will learn about triggering the CI Build with Git Hub Push notifications or Pull notifications automatically by using Jenkins Web Hook URL.
The Jenkins Web Hook URL needs to be added in the GitHub Repository. These Web Hook helps to detect changes in the Git Hub and trigger the Jenkins JOB automatically. Please follow the steps to enable this in Git Hub and Jenkins.

Enable Communication between Jenkins and Git Hub

1. Access the Jenkins URL.
2. Navigate to Manage Jenkins->Configure System->Git Hub Section. Click on Add to provide the Credentials as mentioned below. For Generating the Secret Text Click on this link and generate the Token and update accordingly.
ID: Github1

New personal access token

New personal access token

Jenkins->Git Hub Server

Jenkins->Git Hub Server

3. Navigate to the Git Hub Repository URL click on Integration Services and Add Service as Jenkins(GitHub plugin).
Git Hub Integration Plugin

Git Hub Integration Plugin

4. Configure the Web Hook in the Git Hub Repository Settings as shown below:
Payload URL : Jenkins URL + /github-webhook/
Git HubWebhook Configuration

Git HubWebhook Configuration

5. Provide the Secret Key generated in the Step 2 nothing but the Token. In addition to that select the Events to trigger this Web Hook.

  • Enable Pushes
  • Enable Pull request reviews

Git Hub Events Push and Pull

Git Hub Events Push and Pull

6. Select the Active Checkbox and Add the Web Hook.

7. Navigate to Git Hub Repository URL update the Review Comments for the Pull Request.

8. Access the Web Hook under the Repository Settings and check the payload information.

Web Hook Payload

Web Hook Payload

9. Click on Redeliver Button to send the payload again and verify the response.


Stack Over Flow: Web Hook Connectivity Issues to Jenkins


Using Web Hooks in Git Hub we can configure events such as Push and Pull which triggers the Jenkins Job automatically.


DevOps tutorial Series

DevOps Tutorial-2 Resolve merge conflicts in Git and GitHub

In this tutorial we will learn about resolving the merge conflicts in Git and Github. Git can often resolve differences between merged branches. Usually, the changes are on different lines, or even in different files, which makes the merge simple for computers to understand.

However, sometimes there are competing changes that Git needs your help with to decide which changes to incorporate in the final merge. Often, merge conflicts happen when people make different changes to the same line of the same file, or when one person edits a file and another person deletes the same file. You must resolve the conflict before you can merge the branches.

Lets discuss this scenario in detail:

1. Generally developers or testers create a new branch and modify the HelloWorld.java in there own branch Fix_Bug01.

Creating a new branch for safely experimenting the changes

Creating a new branch for safely experimenting the changes

Adding a new line

Adding a new line

2. During the same time if another team member modify the same file and same lines in the master branch in the Github Repository.
Updating the File in Github master branch

Updating the File in Github master branch

Committing the changes

Committing the changes

3. In Local Repository if the master branch is refreshed from Global Repository and try to merge these changes in the branch Fix_Bug01 which introduces the merge conflicts.
Refresh the Master

Refresh the Master

Conflicts due to changes in the same file and same line

Conflicts due to changes in the same file and same line

4. Fixing the merge Conflicts by ignoring the lines which are not required.
Merge Conflicts

Merge Conflicts

Deleted the unnecessary lines of code

Deleted the unnecessary lines of code

5. Execute the below commands in the Git bash to resolve the merge conflict.
git status

git add

git commit -m "Commit Message"

Fixing the merge conflicts

Fixing the merge conflicts


In this example we have learnt how to resolve the merge conflicts in Github and Git.

Selenium WebDriver Tutorial WebElement Methods

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In this example we will discuss about the WebElement Methods available in Selenium WebDriver. Refer to the Link for WebElement API Methods.

Generally we mainly use methods like sendKeys(),click(),getText(). But they are so many other methods available to verify the input data entered by the user in the textbox. Verify the Css Attributes like color and font-size of the Web Element.

Is WebElement is a Interface or Class??

Answer:: Interface
WebElement is an interface and all the abstract methods in the interface are implemented by the RemoteWebElement Class. Refer to the Link to get more information on Inheritance and Interfaces.

How do we know the Class which are implementing the Interface??

Hold the control button in the keyboard and place the mouse on the method and select Open Implementation as shown below to get the details of the classes which are implementing the interface.

Classes implementing the interface WebElement

Classes implementing the interface WebElement

RemoteWebElement Class implementing the WebElement Interface

RemoteWebElement Class implementing the WebElement Interface

Returns the Color of the WebElement

Returns the font-size

Returns the Location of the WebElement. A point, containing the location of the top left-hand corner of the element

Returns the input data entered by the user in the Text box using sendkeys() method.

Example for fetching the background-color and font-size of the Elements in the Web Page:


Entered Text:: total-qa
id:: username
name:: username
class:: textboxcolor padding
location:: (268, 849)
size:: (231, 30)
color:: rgb(255, 255, 0)
fontsize:: 13.3333px
Tag Name:: input


In this example we have learnt how to use the WebElement Methods in Selenium WebDriver.

XPath normalize-space example in Selenium WebDriver

In this example we will discuss about the usage of normalize-space in Xpath.

We already aware of the Functions like text(),contains(),starts-with(),last() and position() in Xpath. Refer to this link to know details about these functions. Xpath Functions.

Generally, normalize-space(String s) is a method in Xpath useful to remove any leading or trailing spaces in a String. This is also works like a trim() function in java.lang.String class. We will see different examples

In the above example the table data has spaces for Thomas Cook. If we use Xpath Text Function it doesnt provide any value as an output. Please check the screenshot below:

Usage of Xpath text() Function

Usage of Xpath text() Function

Usage of normalize-space(text()) method in Xpath.Please check the screenshot below:



Selenium WebDriver Example to fetch the price for a particular Stock:

Therefor the extra spaces in the table data is ignored and identified the element and fetches the stock price.


Stock Price::: 244.60


In the example we have learnt how to use the normalize-space in Xpath.

[findElements Example]How to find Broken Links in a WebSite using Selenium WebDriver?

[findElements Example]How to find Broken Links in a WebSite using Selenium WebDriver?

In Web Applications it is important to identify the Broken Links. As manual Tester when we click on hyper link if we get HTTP_404 page not found. Then it is obvious that the page is broken. It would be good to find all the HTTP Error Codes as well https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_HTTP_status_codes.
There are different ways of identify the broken links manually using the following Add-on:
LinkChecker Addon for Firefox which helps to identify the broken links in web page opened in Firefox.
In order to identify all the links in a webpage we can use findElements() method which returns the List <WebElement>

Differences between FindElements and FindElement in Selenium WebDriver
1. WebElement e = driver.findElement(By.name(“username”));
findElement(By) returns an WebElement as a return value.
2. findElement(By) throws an exception if it is unable to find an Element.
WebElement e =driver.findElement(By.name(“abc”));
NoSuchElementException is an RunTimeException/Unchecked Exception
3. findElement(By) always selects the first one in the list of matching WebElements.

1. findElements(By) returns an List of WebElements
Details About List:
Click on this link to know more about Collections: java.util.Collection

List is available under java.util package.
List is mainly useful to store multiple objects which are duplicates as well.
WebElements which hare having same properties are known as duplicates.
size() – number of the objects available in list
get(int index)- helps in retrieving the particular object
int a[]={1,2,3,4,5};
a[0]// 0 is the index value in Arrays and it 1 in Xpath.

2.findElements(By) returns an empty list if its unable to find an element
List list = driver.findElements(By.name(“abc”));
Empty List means list.size() is zero.
3. findElements(By) selects all the matching webElements and returns a list.

Logic to Identify the Broken Links in a WebPage:

Therefore we can find all the Broken Links in a WebPage using HTTPURLConnection and findElements method in Selenium WebDriver.
Hope this tutorial helps you in checking Broken links using selenium webdriver.